A Survey of Collection and Services of Medical College Libraries

A Survey of Collection and Services of Medical College Libraries in Uttar Pradesh: Prospects, Problems and Proposal for their Modernization


Libraries are the soul of any research or academic institution. They form the most vital forum of education, especially in the field of technical education. Due to the rapid pace of development taking place in various fields of science and technology (S and T) it become imperative for the libraries to remain up-to-date with the latest advances in technology so that the dissemination of information becomes efficient, quick, feasible, economic, accessible and useful.

The utility of a library depends largely on its collection. Therefore, it is very important that utmost care should be taken to select and maintain a good and strong collection of documents such as books, periodicals, hand books, reference books, dictionaries, directories, encyclopedias and various other related information. Building and developing a library collection able to meet the needs of users, such as scientists, students, research scholars and others adequately is a major task of a good library. The quality of services provided and the satisfaction of the users depend a great deal upon the kinds of collections made available. A comprehensive, balanced and up-to-date collection is to have documents of different types in various physical forms to satisfy the informational needs of the users.

The basic aim of a library is to provide efficient services to its users. Therefore, user satisfaction should be the main goal of a good librarian. This goal can not be achieved unless and until the library management has got a clear idea about the user needs and demands. The library should be well-equipped besides having a good and strong collection of documents. Variety of services should be offered to cater to the needs of its users. Latest and up-to-date technology should be adopted in order to provide better services.

In the modern era of information explosion which has led to the evolution of multidisciplinary domains in the different fields of S and T the user demand and expectations have grown tremendously. In order to meet this challenge the library should be well equipped with the modern tools of information storage and its retrieval so that the right information is made available to the right user at the right place and at the right time.

With the advent of computers and Internet a transformation is taking place in the information infrastructure leading to the development of digital or electronic libraries. The latest advances in the field of information technology, telecommunications, software, networking, multimedia and scanning technology have produced a revolutionary change in the field of library and information technology. Networking technologies have resulted in the creation of virtual or on-line libraries which are immensely popular with the users and proving to be a boon for the society as a whole due to the instant access of information anytime and anywhere in the world. Thus the barriers of time and space have been shattered and the vast world has been reduced into a “global village” where anyone can have immediate access to the information of his/her choice by using the techniques of computer software, networking and scanning technologies.

A digital library may be defined as an electronic version of a traditional library where all the information is stored and preserved in digital form. In a digital library the data accessed includes non-text information such as photographs, drawings, illustrations, works of art; streams of numeric data (satellite information, cosmological data); digitized sound and moving visual images and 3 D representations (holograms) besides traditional text based information.

There are many Allopathic Medical Colleges in Uttar Pradesh where digitization and networking of libraries can give a big boost not only to the enhancement of the quality and standard of services available in the hospitals but also help to a great extent in the promotion of medical studies and research. But the implementation of this process of digitization and networking of libraries depends a great deal upon the role and attitude of the librarians towards this comprehensive process for its success.

Review of literature

Many sources of information both published and unpublished have been consulted to develop a clear concept of the proposed study. It has been observed that the digitization and networking process in the field of library and information science has helped to a great extent in the effective and instant dissemination of right information at right cost at right time to the right user.


The objectives of the proposed study are as follows:

1) To assess the role and attitude of librarians in the success of the digitization and networking process in the libraries of Allopathic Medical Colleges in U.P.

2) To study the size and nature of collection in the libraries of Allopathic Medical Colleges in U.P.

3) To examine the level of digitization in the libraries of Allopathic Medical Colleges in U.P.

4) To study the methods employed for digitization and networking in the libraries of Allopathic Medical Colleges in U.P.

5) To study the existing library services and facilities offered by the libraries of Allopathic Medical Colleges in U.P.

6) To study the digitization and networking process in the libraries of Allopathic Medical Colleges in U.P.

7) To study the effectiveness and efficiency of the digitization and networking process in the libraries of Allopathic Medical Colleges in U.P.

8) To assess the demand and popularity of the digitization and networking process in the libraries of Allopathic Medical Colleges in U.P.

9) To study the problems and challenges faced by librarians in the process of digitization and networking in the libraries of Allopathic Medical Colleges in U.P.

10) To make suggestions for improvement in the process of digitization and networking in the libraries of Allopathic Medical Colleges in U.P.

11) To discover the limitations in the process of digitization and networking in the libraries of Allopathic Medical Colleges in U.P.


This study will be based on the survey of the libraries of the Allopathic Medical Colleges in Uttar Pradesh. For this purpose the libraries of only those Allopathic Medical Colleges are included which have been approved by the Medical Council of India (MCI) to run MBBS course of study and entitled to award the degree of MBBS and other degrees related to Allopathic Medicine and Surgery. The names of such Allopathic Medical Colleges selected for the proposed study are given below: –

  1. S.N. Medical College, Agra.
  2. G.S.V.M. Medical College, Kanpur.
  3. Institute of Medical sciences, B.H.U, Varanasi.
  4. Moti Lal Nehru Medical College, Allahabad.
  5. Jawahar Lal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh.
  6. L.L.R.M. Medical College, Meerut.
  7. Maharani Laxmi Bai Medical College, Jhansi.
  8. B.R.D. Medical College, Gorakhpur.
  9. Santosh Medical College, Ghaziabad.
  10. Sardar Patel Institute of Dental and Medical Sciences, Lucknow.
  11. Era Lucknow Medical College, Lucknow.
  12. Subharati Medical College, Meerut


A hypothesis may be considered as a tentative generalization of the problem under investigation. It is meant to provide the researcher with an opportunity (prior to the actual data collection) to predict the results of the study. A hypothesis is an expectation about events or a shrewd guess or a prediction of the results of the study.

As hypotheses are predictions, therefore, these are formulated before the collection of data. No hypothesis should be formulated once the data are known.

The following hypotheses have been formulated for the proposed study: –

1) The libraries of the Allopathic Medical Colleges in Uttar Pradesh are having a rich collection of documents.

2) The Allopathic Medical Colleges’ Libraries are providing a variety of services to their users.

3) The libraries of the Allopathic Medical Colleges in Uttar Pradesh are facing certain problems.

4) There is an urgent need for the modernization of the libraries of Allopathic Medical Colleges in Uttar Pradesh according to the latest techniques such as digitization and networking of libraries.


It is planned to adopt the following method for the completion of the proposed study: –

1) Literature Search: – It shall be done by consulting the vast literature existing on the subject of digitization and networking. For this purpose different books by noted authors as well as journals and seminar papers will be studied thoroughly.

2) Questionnaire: – In order to conduct the proposed study the most important tool for the collection of data is the questionnaire. Therefore, a comprehensive questionnaire shall be designed to collect all the important and relevant data. This questionnaire shall be sent to the librarians of the concerned libraries. After obtaining the filled questionnaire the data shall be analyzed and interpreted according to the objectives of the proposed study.

3) Library Survey: – It is planned to conduct library survey for a systematic collection of data concerning libraries, their activities, operations, staff, use and users, at a given time or over a given period.

4) Interview of Librarians: – In order to collect the accurate data and obtain the views and opinion of the librarians of the concerned libraries it is also proposed to conduct personal interviews of the concerned librarians.


The following may be the utilities of the proposed study: –

1) It may be helpful in finding out the problems and difficulties faced by the librarians of the libraries of Allopathic Medical Colleges in Uttar Pradesh.

2) It may be helpful to the concerned authorities in the effective implementation of the digitization and networking process.

3) It may be helpful in finding out the prospects of the adoption digitization and networking process of the libraries of Allopathic Medical Colleges in Uttar Pradesh.

4) It may help in finding out the solution to some of those problems, which are retarding the progress of the digitization and networking process in the libraries.

5) It may be helpful to the libraries of Allopathic Medical Colleges in resource sharing and connecting with each other via networking.


The proposed study will be divided into seven chapters, which are as follows: –

Chapter – One Introduction

Chapter – Two Medical Council of India (MCI) and the Allopathic Medical Colleges in U.P.: An overview.

Chapter -Three Allopathic Medical Colleges’ libraries in U.P.: Present status and functions

Chapter- Four Digitization and Networking process in libraries and information centers: A brief background.

Chapter-Five Present status of digitization and networking process in the libraries of Allopathic Medical colleges in U.P.

Chapter-Six Comparative study of the status of the digitization and networking process in the libraries of Allopathic Medical colleges in U.P.

Chapter – Seven Conclusion and Suggestions.

Use of RFID Technology in Libraries: An Automated Metheod of Circulation, Security, Tracking and…

1. Introduction

RFID is an acronym for Radio Frequency Identification. It is a technology that allows an item, for example a library book to be tracked and communicated with by radio waves. This technology is similar in concept to a Cell Phone.

Radio frequency identification, or RFID, is a broad term for technologies that use radio waves to automatically identify people or objects. There are several methods of identification, but the most common is to store a serial number that identifies a person or object, and perhaps other information, on a microchip that is attached to an antenna (the chip and the antenna together are called an RFID transponder or an RFID tag). The antenna enables the chip to transmit the identification information to a reader. The reader converts the radio waves reflected back from the RFID tag into digital information that can then be passed on to computers that can make use of it.

2.Concept of RFID for Libraries

RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) is the latest technology to be used in library circulation operations and theft detection systems. RFID-based systems move beyond security to become tracking systems that combine security with more efficient tracking of materials throughout the library, including easier and faster charge and discharge, inventorying, and materials handling.

This technology helps librarians reduce valuable staff time spent scanning barcodes while checking out and checking in borrowed items.

RFID is a combination of radio -frequency-based technology and microchip technology. The information contained on microchips in the tags affixed to library materials is read using radio frequency technology regardless of item orientation or alignment (i.e., the technology does not require line-of-sight or a fixed plane to read tags as do traditional theft detection systems). The RFID gates at the library exit(s) can be as wide as four feet because the tags can be read at a distance of up to two feet by each of two parallel exit gate sensors.

2.1 Components of an RFID System

A comprehensive RFID system has four components:

(1) RFID tags that are electronically programmed with unique information;

(2) Readers or sensors to query the tags;

(3) Antenna; and

(4) Server on which the software that interfaces with the integrated library software is loaded.


The heart of the system is the RFID tag, which can be fixed inside a book’s back cover or directly onto CDs and videos. This tag is equipped with a programmeable chip and an antenna. Each paper-thin tag contains an engraved antenna and a microchip with a capacity of at least 64 bits. There are three types of tags: “read only”, “WORM,” and “read/write.

“Tags are “read only” if the identification is encoded at the time of manufacture and not rewritable.

“WORM” (Write-Once-Read-Many)” tags are programmed by the using organization, but without the ability of rewriting them later.

“Read/write tags,” which are chosen by most libraries, can have information changed or added. In RFID library, it is common to have part of the read/write tag secured against rewriting, e.g., the identification number of the item.

2.1.2 Readers

The reader powers an antenna to generate an RF field. When a tag passes through the field, the information stored on the chip in the tag is interpreted by the reader and sent to the server, which, in turn, communicates with the Integrated library system when the RFID system is interfaced with it.

RFID exit gate sensors (readers) at exits are basically two types. One type reads the information on the tag(s) going by and communicates that information to a server. The server, after checking against the circulation database, turn on an alarm if the material is not properly checked-out. Another type relies on a “theft” byte in the tag that is turned on or off to show that the item has been charged or not. It is then not necessary to communicate with the circulation database.

Readers in RFID library are used in the following ways:

Conversion station-where library data is written to the tag;

Staff workstation at circulation- used to charge and discharge library materials;

Self check-out station-used to check-out library materials without staff assistance;

Self check-in station-used to check in books etc. without staff assistance;

Exit sensors- to verify that all the books etc. leaving the library have been checked-out;

Book-drop reader- used to automatically discharge library materials and reactivate security.

Sorter and conveyor-automated system for returning books etc. to proper area of library;

Hand-held reader-used for inventorying and verifying that books etc. are shelved correctly.

2.1.3 Antenna

The antenna produces radio signals to activate the tag and read and write data to it. Antennas are the channels between the tag and the reader, which controls the system’s data acquisitons and communication. The electromagnetic field produced by an antenna can be constantly present when multiple tags are expected continually. Antennas can be built into a doorframe to receive tag data from person’s things passing through the door.

2.1.4 Server

The server is the heart of some comprehensive RFID systems. It is the communications gateway among the various components. It receives the information from one or more of the readers and exchanges information with the circulation database. Its software includes the SIP/SIP2 (Session Initiation Protocol), APIs (Applications Programming Interface) NCIP or SLNP necessary to interface it with the integrated library software. The server typically includes a transaction database so that reports can be produced.

2.2 Optional Components

Optional RFID system includes the following three components:

1. RFID Label Printer

2. Handheld Reader

3. External Book Return

1. RFID label Printer

An RFID-printer is used to print the labels with an individual barcode, library logo etc. When the print is applied, it simultaneously programmed the data in to the chip. After this process, the RFID label is taken from the printer and self-adhered to the book. It also checks each RFID label for function.

2. Handheld Reader/Inventory Wand

The portable Handheld Reader or inventory wand can be moved along the items on the shelves without touching them. The data goes to a storage unit, which can be downloaded at a server later on, or it can go to a unit, which will transmit it to the server using wireless technology. The inventory wand will cover three requirements:

· Screen the complete book collection on the shelves for inventory control.

· Search for books, which are mis-shelved.

· Search for individual book requested.

Other applications can be written for the inventory wand, since the system utilizes a personal data terminal (PDT).

3. External Book Return

Libraries can offer a distinct service, which is very useful for users like ability to return books during off hours. External book return is a machine with a slot with a chip RFID reader integrated into the wall. It works the same way as the Self Check –Out Station. The user identifies himself/herself (if required by the library), and then puts the book(s) in to the slot. Upon completing his/her return, the user will receive a receipt showing how many and which books were returned. Since they have already been checked-in, they can go directly back onto the shelves. These units can also be used with sorter and conveyor systems.

3. Key Features of RFID in library

The reliability of the system, its ease of operation, and the flexibility of tagging all kinds of media easily, is important criteria in choosing an RFID system. The main aim for today’s libraries to adopt RFID is the need to increase efficiency and reduce cost. Automation and self-service can help libraries of all sizes toward achieving these aims, and RFID has the added advantage that it can also provide security for the range of different media on offer in libraries. The technology can also improve circulation and inventory control, which helps to optimise the allocation of labour and financial resources. This means that libraries can relieve their professional employees of routine work and operational tasks.

All of the tags used in RFID technology for libraries are “passive.” The power to read the tags comes from the reader or exit sensor (reader), rather than from a battery within the tag.

A few libraries use “smart” card, which is an RFID card with additional encryption, is an alternative to merely adding an RFID tag on staff and user identification cards. Not only does that identify users for issue and return of library materials, but also for access to restricted areas or services. This would make it possible to make it into a “debit” card, with value added upon pre-payment to the library and value subtracted when a user used a photocopier, printer, or other fee-based device, or wished to pay fines or fees.

3.1 Speedy and Easy User self-charging/discharging

The use of RFID reduces the amount of time required to perform circulation operations. This technology helps librarians eliminate valuable staff time spent scanning barcodes while checking out and checking in borrowed items. For the users, RFID speeds up the borrowing and returns procedures. The Library professionals, instead of scanning bar codes all day long in front of a queue of users, are released for more productive and interesting duties. Staff is relieved further when readers are installed in book drops.

3.2 Reliability

The readers are highly reliable. Several vendors of RFID library systems claim an almost 100 percent detection rate using RFID tags.

Some RFID systems have an interface between the exit sensors and the circulation software to identify the items moving out of the library. Were a library user to run out of the library and not be catched, the library would at least know what had been stolen. If the user card also has an RFID tag, the library will also be able to determine who removed the items without properly charging them.

Other RFID systems encode the circulation status on the RFID tag. This is done by designating a bit as the “theft” bit and turning it off at time of charge and on at time of discharge. If the material that has not been properly charged is taken past the exit gate sensors, an immediate alarm is triggered. Another option is to use both the “theft” bit and the online interface to an integrated library system, the first to signal an immediate alarm and the second to identify what has been taken out.

3.3 High-speed inventorying

A unique advantage of RFID systems is their ability to scan books on the shelves without tipping them out or removing them. A hand-held inventory reader can be moved rapidly across a shelf of books to read all of the unique identification information. Using wireless technology, it is possible not only to update the inventory, but also to identify items, which are out of proper order.

3.4 Automated materials handling

Another application of RFID technology is automated materials handling. This includes conveyor and sorting systems that can move library materials and sort them by category into separate bins or onto separate carts. This significantly reduces the amount of staff time required to ready materials for re-shelving.

3.5 Tag life

RFID tags last longer than barcodes because, the technology does not require line-of-sight. Most RFID vendors claim a minimum of 100,000 transactions before a tag may need to be replaced.

4. Demerits of RFID Systems

4.1 High cost

The major disadvantage of RFID technology is its cost. While the readers and gate sensors used to read the information typically cost around $1,500 to $2,500 each; and the tags cost $.40 to $.75 each.

4.2 Accessibility to compromise

It is possible to compromise an RFID system by wrapping the protected material in two to three layers of ordinary household foil to block the radio signal. It is also possible to compromise an RFID system by placing two items against one another so that one tag overlays another. That may cancel out the signals. This requires knowledge of the technology and careful alignment.

4.3 Removal of exposed tags

RFID tags are typically affixed to the inside back cover and are exposed for removal. This means that there would be problems when users become more familiar with the role of the tags. In Indian libraries this is a major challenge to keep the tags intact.

4.4 Exit gate sensor (Reader) problems

While the short-range readers used for circulation charge and discharge and inventorying appear to read the tags 100 percent of the time, the performance of the exit gate sensors is more problematic. They always don’t read tags at up to twice the distance of the other readers. There is no library that has done a before and after inventory to determine the loss rate when RFID is used for security.

4.5 Invasion of User Privacy

Privacy concerns associated with item-level tagging is another significant barrier to library use of RFID tags. The problem with today’s library RFID system is that the tags contain static information that can be relatively easily read by unauthorized tag readers. This allows for privacy issues described as “tracking” and “hotlisting”.

Tracking refers to the ability to track the movements of a book (or person carrying the book) by “correlating multiple observations of the book’s bar code” or RFID tag. Hotlisting refers to the process of building a database of books and their associated tag numbers (the hotlist) and then using an unauthorized reader to determine who is checking out items in the hotlist.

4.6 Reader collision

One problem meet with RFID is the signal from one reader can interfere with the signal from another where coverage overlaps. This is called reader collision. One way to avoid the problem is to use a technique called time division multiple access, or TDMA. In simple terms, the readers are instructed to read at different times, rather than both trying to read at the same time. This ensures that they don’t interfere with each other. But it means any RFID tag in an area where two readers overlap will be read twice.

4.7 Tag collision

Another problem readers have is reading a lot of chips in the same field. Tag clash occurs when more than one chip reflects back a signal at the same time, confusing the reader. Different vendors have developed different systems for having the tags respond to the reader one at a time. Since they can be read in milliseconds, it appears that all the tags are being read simultaneously.

4.8 Lack of Standard

The tags used by library RFID vendors are not compatible even when they conform to the same standards because the current standards only seek electronic compatibility between tags and readers. The pattern of encoding information and the software that processes the information differs from vendor to vendor, therefore, a change from one vendor’s system to the other would require retagging all items or modifying the software.

5. Best Practices guidelines for Libraries

As libraries are implementing RFID systems, it is important to develop best practices guidelines to utilize the technology in best way and to keep the privacy concern away. The following may be the best practices guidelines for library RFID use:

· The Library should be open about its use of RFID technology including providing publicly available documents stating the rational for using RFID, objectives of its use and associated policies and procedure and who to contact with questions.

· Signs should be pasted at all facilities using RFID. The signs should inform the public that RFID technology is in use, the types of usage and a statement of protection of privacy and how this technology differs from other information collection methods.

· Only authorized personnel should have access to the RFID system.

· No personal information should be stored on the RFID tag.

· Information describing the tagged item should be encrypted on the tag even if the data is limited to a serial number

· No static information should be contained on the tag (bar code, manufacturer number) that can be read by unauthorised readers.

· All communication between tag and reader should be encrypted via a unique encryption key.

· All RFID readers in the library should be clearly marked.

· ISO 18000 mode-2 tags should be used rather than ISO 15693.

6. Installations

While there are over 500,000 RFID systems installed in warehouses and retail establishments worldwide, RFID systems are still relatively new in libraries. Fewer than 150 had been installed as of the 2004.

Most installations are small, primarily in branch libraries. The University of Connecticut Library; University of Nevada/Las Vegas Library, the Vienna Public Library in Austria, the Catholic University of Leuven in Belgium, and the National University of Singapore Library are the only sites that appear to have tagged more than 500,000 items each.
So far in India only two University libraries have Installed the RFID system. First among them is Jayakar Library of Pune University and second is Dhanvantri Library of Jammu University. The use of RFID throughout Indian libraries will take at least four to five years.

7. Recent Developments

Recent developments in hardware and software for RFID systems have increased the potential of this technology in library automation and security. ‘Today, the one important result for libraries is the ability to use non-proprietary systems, now that the new generation of RFID-chips with standard ISO 15693 (to be integrated into ISO 18000-3) is available,’ explains Dr Christian Kern, system development manager of Bibliotheca RFID Library Systems, a Swiss company specialising in such systems for libraries. ‘With this technology, libraries do not have to depend on one single supplier for tags. As libraries make a long-term investment, which mainly consists of the quantity of tags needed, this is a very important requirement.’

8. Vendors

The products of six manufacturers of library RFID systems are available in India through their business associates: Bibliotheca, Checkpoint, ID Systems, 3M, X-ident technology GmbH represented by Infotek software and systems in India and TAGSYS— the last represented by Tech Logic, Vernon, Libsys in India and VTLS .

There are several other companies that provide products that work with RFID, including user self-charging stations and materials handling equipment.


It is quite clear from the above discussion that an RFID system may be a comprehensive system that addresses both the security and materials tracking needs of a library. RFID in the library is not a threat if best practices guidelines followed religiously, that it speeds up book borrowing and inventories and frees staff to do more user-service tasks. The technology saves money too and quickly gives a return on investment.

As far as privacy issue is concerned it is important to educate library staff and library users about the RFID technology used in libraries before implementing a program.

It may be good for librarians to wait and watch the developments in RFID for some time before the cost of tags comes down to $.20 or less, the figure which librarians has determined is the key to their serious consideration for the use of technology.

While library RFID systems have a great deal in common with one another, including the use of high frequency (13.56 MHz), passive, read-write tags. Lack of Standard and Compatibility of tags produced by different vendors is a major problem in implementation of RFID in Libraries. Current standards (ISO 15693) apply to container level tagging used in supply chain applications and do not address problems of tracking and hot listing. Next generation tags (ISO 18000) are designed for item level tagging. The newer tags are capable of resolving many of the privacy problems of today’s tags. However, no library RFID products are currently available using the new standard. Apart from that cost of the RFID Tags and equipments is also a major problem for libraries to implement the same in a developing country like India.


Ayre, Lori Bowen, The Galecia Group (August 2004) Position paper: RFID and libraries. Retrived from [http://www.galecia.com/weblog/mt/archives/cat_rfidandwireless.php]

Berkeley Public Library (n.d.) Berkeley Public Library: Best Practices for RFID technology. Retrieved from [http://berkeleypubliclibrary.org/BESTPRAC.pdf].

BIBLIOTHECA RFID Library Systems AG (2003) RFID Technology Overview
Retrieved from http://www.bibliotheca-rfid.com

Boss. R. W. (2003). RFID technology for libraries [Monograph]. Library Technology Reports. November-December 2003.

Boss. R. W. PLA Tech Notes (May 14, 2004) RFID Technology for libraries. Retrieved from [http://www.ala.org/ala/pla/plapubs/technotes/rfidtechnology.htm]

FAQ RFID Journal (OnlineVersion) Retrieved from http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/207

Koppel, T. (March 2004). Standards in Libraries: What’s Ahead: a guide for Library Professional about the Library Standards of Today and the Future. The Library Corporation. Retrieved from http://www.tlcdelivers.com/tlc/pdf/standardswp.pdf.

Molnar, D., Wagner, D. A. (June 2004). Privacy and security in library RFID: Issues, practices and architectures. Retrieved from [http://www.cs.berkeley.edu~dmolnar/library].

Sarma, E. S. Weis, S. A., Engels, D.W. (November 2002). White paper: RFID systems, security & privacy implications. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, AUTO-ID Center.

The Roles of Libraries in Teaching and Learning


Libraries have long served crucial roles in learning. The first great library, in Alexandria two thousand years ago was really the first university. It consisted of a zoo and various cultural artifacts in addition to much of the ancient world’s written knowledge and attracted scholars from around the Mediterranean who lived and worked in a scholarly community for years at a time. Today, the rhetoric associated with the National/Global Information Infrastructure (N/GII) always includes examples of how the vast quantities of information that global networks provide (i.e., digital libraries) will be used in educational settings. An important aspect of the Library’s educational mission is to promote and develop informational literacy in its users. Information literacy, in general, is the ability to identify, locate, use and interpret information effectively.

Role of Modern Libraries:

A library is defined by three fundamental functions:

(1)selection to create a “collection”;
(2) organization to enable access; and
(3) preservation for ongoing use.

Although technologies may evolve to add the second function to the Web, the first and third functions are antithetical to the very nature of today’s Web. The Web’s successor will become more “library-like,” and libraries will continue to become more “Web-like,” but each will retain some essential differences from the other.

The Web is most definitely not a library now, and it probably never will be. But the Web provides a wonderful mechanism for collaboration between and among scholars and librarians who want to create “libraries” of high-quality resources on a particular topic for scholarship and teaching. Another great concern about Web resources is that they are ephemeral. Libraries select and preserve information resources for generations to come. The longevity of Web-based resources is calculated in days!

How do libraries support teaching and learning?

A library is fundamentally an organized set of resources, which include human services as well as the entire spectrum of media (e.g., text, video, hypermedia). Libraries have physical components such as space, equipment, and storage media; intellectual components such as collection policies that determine what materials will be included and organizational schemes that determine how the collection is accessed; and people who manage the physical and intellectual components and interact with users to solve information problems

Libraries serve at least three roles in learning.

First, they serve a practical role in sharing expensive resources. Physical resources such as books and periodicals, films and videos, software and electronic databases, and specialized tools such as projectors, graphics equipment and cameras are shared by a community of users. Human resources–librarians (also called media specialists or information specialists) support instructional programs by responding to the requests of teachers and students (responsive service) and by initiating activities for teachers and students (proactive services). Responsive services include maintaining reserve materials, answering reference questions, providing bibliographic instruction, developing media packages, recommending books or films, and teaching users how to use materials. Proactive services include selective dissemination of information to faculty and students, initiating thematic events, collaborating with instructors to plan instruction, and introducing new instructional methods and tools. In these ways, libraries serve to allow instructors and students to share expensive materials and expertise.

Second, libraries serve a cultural role in preserving and organizing artifacts and ideas. Great works of literature, art, and science must be preserved and made accessible to future learners. Although libraries have traditionally been viewed as facilities for printed artifacts, primary and secondary school libraries often also serve as museums and laboratories. Libraries preserve objects through careful storage procedures, policies of borrowing and use, and repair and maintenance as needed. In addition to preservation, libraries ensure access to materials through indexes, catalogs, and other finding aids that allow learners to locate items appropriate to their needs.

Third, libraries serve social and intellectual roles in bringing together people and ideas. This is distinct from the practical role of sharing resources in that libraries provide a physical place for teachers and learners to meet outside the structure of the classroom, thus allowing people with different perspectives to interact in a knowledge space that is both larger and more general than that shared by any single discipline or affinity group. Browsing a catalog in a library provides a global view for people engaged in specialized study and offers opportunities for serendipitous insights or alternative views. In many respects, libraries serve as centers of interdisciplinary–places shared by learners from all disciplines.

Formal learning is systematic and guided by instruction. Formal learning takes place in courses offered at schools of various kinds and in training courses or programs on the job. The important roles that libraries serve in formal learning are illustrated by their physical prominence on university campuses and the number of courses that make direct use of library services and materials. Most of the information resources in schools are tied directly to the instructional mission. Students or teachers who wish to find information outside this mission have in the past had to travel to other libraries. By making the broad range of information resources discussed below available to students and teachers in schools, digital libraries open new learning opportunities for global rather than strictly local communities.

Much learning in life is informal–opportunistic and strictly under the control of the learner. Learners take advantage of other people, mass media, and the immediate environment during informal learning. The public library system that developed in the U.S. in the late nineteenth century has been called the “free university”, since public libraries were created to provide free access to the world’s knowledge. Public libraries provide classic nonfiction books, a wide range of periodicals, reference sources, and audio and video tapes so that patrons can learn about topics of their own choosing at their own pace and style. Just as computing technology and world-wide telecommunications networks are beginning to change what is possible in formal classrooms, they are changing how individuals pursue personal learning missions.

Professional learning refers to the on going learning adults engage in to do their work and to improve their work-related knowledge and skills. In fact, for many professionals, learning is the central aspect of their work. Like informal learning, it is mainly self-directed, but unlike formal or informal learning, it is focused on a specific field closely linked to job performance, aims to be comprehensive, and is acquired and applied longitudinally. Since professional learning affects job performance, corporations and government agencies support libraries (often called information centers) with information resources specific to the goals of the organization.

The main information resources for professional learning, however, are personal collections of books, reports, and files; subscriptions to journals; and the human networks of colleagues nurtured through professional meetings and various communications. Many of the data sets and computational tools of digital libraries were originally developed to enhance professional learning. The information resources–both physical and human–that support these types of learning are customized for specific missions and have traditionally been physically separated, although common technologies such as printing, photography, and computing are found across all settings.
Role of Digital Libraries:

Digital libraries extend such inter disciplinarily by making diverse information resources available beyond the physical space shared by groups of learners. One of the greatest benefits of digital libraries is bringing together people with formal, informal, and professional learning missions. Many of the data sets and computational tools of digital libraries were originally developed to enhance professional learning. The information resources–both physical and human–that support these types of learning are customized for specific missions and have traditionally been physically separated, although common technologies such as printing, photography, and computing are found across all settings.

Digital libraries combine technology and information resources to allow remote access, breaking down the physical barriers between resources. Although these resources will remain specialized to meet the needs of specific communities of learners, digital libraries will allow teachers and students to take advantage of wider ranges of materials and communicate with people outside the formal learning environment. This will allow more integration of the different types of learning. Although not all students or teachers in formal learning settings will use information resources beyond their circumscribed curriculum and not all professionals will want to interact even occasionally with novices, digital libraries will allow learners of all types to share resources, time and energy, and expertise to their mutual benefits. The following sections illustrate some of the types of information resources that are defining digital libraries.

As research and teaching increasingly rely on global networks for the creation, storage and dissemination of knowledge, the need to educate information-literate students has become more widely recognized. Students often lack the skills necessary to succeed in this rapidly changing environment, and faculty need training and support to make use of new technologies for effective teaching and learning. The current environment provides an opportunity for librarians to play a key role in the evolution of integrated information literacy. Thus, technology itself may provide a positive impetus as, “developments in education and technology are beginning to help academic librarians achieve new breakthroughs in integrating information and technology skills into the curriculum”

Technology allows library services to be available to students and faculty whenever and wherever they need such services. Technology makes possible round-the-clock library services without increasing investment in human resources. In addition, research materials increasingly exist only in digital form. Such resources are available only with the application of technology. Libraries will continue to exploit the inevitable technological innovation to improve productivity, control costs, enrich services, and deliver the high-quality content that is demanded.


1. ls.unc.edu/~march/cacm95/main.html
2. educause.edu/pub/er/erm00/pp069073.pdf
3. informationr.net/ir/3-1/paper24.html